In most cases, achalasia of the cardia occurs in middle age.
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The esophagus is a muscular tube lined on the inside with a mucous membrane.
If the dysfunction develops as primary achalasia on its own, then the nerve cells that normally control the precise movements of the esophagus during swallowing can't keep up.
Inside the muscle layer are interconnected nerve cells (the so-called Auerbach plexus).
They control the precise movement of the esophagus during swallowing. These movements carry food completely from the mouth to the stomach.
An acidic environment disinfects food, mixes it with enzymes and destroys it.
The lower esophageal sphincter (gastroesophageal sphincter) between the stomach and esophagus, like a valve, prevents the return of food and aggressive hydrochloric acid to the esophagus: it ensures muscle contraction, being responsible for their tension and relaxation, so that food entering the stomach does not return the contents of the stomach back.
In achalasia, the lower esophageal sphincter cannot relax due to failure of the Auerbach's plexus.
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The frequency of occurrence of achalasia. Achalasia cardia is a rare disease: every year it occurs in 1 in 100,000 people. It can occur at any age, but most often, this dysfunction of the esophagus occurs in people between 25-60 years of age. Depending on the causes of achalasia, doctors call esophageal disorders primary (or idiopathic, i.e. occurring for no apparent reason) or secondary (i.e., as a result of other diseases).
"Thus, the gastric duct with achalasia is so tightly closed that food cannot completely enter the stomach - the products literally get stuck in the throat. This causes increased pressure in the esophagus and leads to its expansion."
" The cause of primary achalasia is that the nerve cells in the nerve network (the so-called Auerbach's plexus or Meissner's plexus) die in the region of the lower esophagus. "
" The lower esophageal sphincter (called the gastroesophageal sphincter) cannot relax when swallowing, and the ability of the middle and lower esophagus to contract and therefore help transport food is reduced."